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Intellectual Bases of "Ittihadists" in the Ottoman Intelligentia of the Constitutionalism's Period
When it is analysed Ittihadists ideas, it is seen that there was no one type of Ittihadist thinking. Their ideas on the vital issues evolved over time. They lived in times of enourmous upheaval and their thinking reflected the fast changing circumstances surronding them.It is possible to find contradictions in the writings of each and every one of them, but it can be discerned the essential characteristics of their thinking. Almost all of the young turks was influenced by Le bon’s ideas on the psychology of the masses and a fear of the irrational behaviour of people that was not led by an intellectual elite was deep rooted them. According to them if a tranformation of system realesed , it should be from above, not upheaval from below. All of the things they influenced France revolution is the first one. Anti clericalism, scientism, intellectual elitism, distrust of the masses, social darwinism, nationalism and of course being mason are effects of French revolution. In this article is analysed events and thoughts which shaped thinking of ittihadists.

Ittihadists, revolutions, pozitivism, social darwinism, being mason.

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