TURKISH & MONGOLIC WORDS AND TURKISH LEXICAL ELEMENTS IN PASHTO
PEŞTUCADA TÜRKÇE/MOĞOLCA KELIMELER VE TÜRKÇE DİL UNSURLARI

Author : Doğan YÜCEL
Number of pages : 98-135

Abstract

Today's Afghanistan is like an intermediate buffer zone separating the fertile Indian plains between the steppes and deserts of Central Asia. In history, sometimes it was the first administrative point of those who crossed from Central Asia / Iran to India and at the same time it was under the rule of the states that wanted to expand their territory in India. In history, the Turks who had crossed from Central Asia to India were also the first stoppages in terms of the presence of the Afghan plateaus on the transit routes. In terms of literary, political, cultural and social history, it is perhaps as important as India for Turkish language and Turks. There is an interaction of about 2500 years as of known date. While the North, West and Middle parts of India have remained under the rule of various Turkish states for hundreds of years, Afghanistan has often been part of this administration. Until 1725, the period of 1700-1800 Turkish administration was held in Afghanistan until the beginning of the reign of the Kushan state and passed on to the administration of the local Afghan king in 1725. Pashto, which is spoken by about 45-60 million, is one of the most important languages in terms of Turkish Language and Turkish history. The Turkish language, which was the “super stratum” during the administration of the Turks, has severely influenced the Persian and Pashto languages in Afghanistan. Briefly, the history of Afghanistan and history related to Turks are discussed. Six different Pashto dictionaries were scanned, both in the first basic dictionaries written in the Afghani language and dictionaries written recently. In these dictionaries, the words borrowed from Turkish into the Afghan language, additional and reproduced hybrid words are listed. In our study, 333 words and language elements were identified with new productions. To the best of our knowledge, the first and only study of Turkish words in Pashto is indirectly Doerfer's “Turkish and Mongolian Words in New Persian”. As far as we know that this work is the only work on this subject if the indirect work of Doerfer is left aside. In addition to Turkish words and elements, 32 Mongolian words are included in the list. Finally, four sample words from Western languages through Turkish were added to end of list. The determined words have been classified thematically, phonologically and phonetically.

Keywords

Pashto, Afghan Language, Turkish Loanwords, Lexical Borrowings, Mongolian Loanwords

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