The period of Sultan Mahmud II is a period that intensive external political events were lived and beside numerous reform were made. Mahmud II was an emperor who made the innovations real, which many of the Sultans wanted but failed, even some of them died because of these enterprises. Many of the westernisation movements, especially abolishment of Guild of Jannissaries which was the biggest obstacle against the reforms, started at this period. Sultan Mahmud II, who found the chance of moving easier, made innovations not only in military areas, but also in lots of areas such as founding new educational institutions, taking a census and setting the jails. The biggest obstacle against these reforms were the Ulema and Sheiks after the military. At the Ottoman Empire that had low literacy rates; the views of Ulema and Sheiks were valued too much in guiding the society which had too much religious sensitivity. Namely, people used to think that following the lead of Ulema and Sheiks who were the role model for themselves and knew the best of everything, was a more foolproof way rather than reading and advocating an idea. Sultan Mahmud II not only discovered the strenght of public opinion and the big role of Ulema and Sheiks while establishing the public opinion, but also he knew being backed by this strength while making these reforms. In this study, we will examine how Sultan Mahmud II benefited from the cults and Islamic monastery Sheiks for the reforms, what kind of a way he followed while establishing public opinion in countenance of the reforms or at least preventing the reacts against the reforms.
II.Mahmud, innovatioan, ulema, sheiks.
|Author :||Dilek ARIBOĞA|
|Number of pages:||150-167|